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Lesson Plans
Forest Fires 11



Forest Fires

Target Group

  • Grade 11 & 12

Main Idea

Forest fire techniques were very different in the 1970’s compared to today. Everything from crews to the equipment used was unique and served a specific purpose. Technological changes make it possible today to use more advance techniques in fighting forest fires.

Subject Areas

Objectives

Students will be able to describe:

  • Necessary tools needed in the 1970’s for fire suppression.
  • The economy of the 1970’s.
  • How to read a fire location map.

Teacher Notes

No prior knowledge is needed to successfully present this lesson plan.

Materials

  • “Northwood Pulp and Timber Limited 1977 Pre-Organization Plan”
  • “Fire Access Roads 1969”

Outline

  1. Divide class into 4 groups.
    1. Fire Boss
    2. Protection supervisor
    3. Cooks
    4. Fire fighters
  2. Distribute the “Northwood Pulp and Timber Limited 1977 Pre-Organization Plan” handout to each student.
  3. Give each group 10 minutes to come up with their job description and their wages.
  4. After the 10 minutes of brainstorming have a member from each group present to the class their findings.
  5. Once each group has presented, brainstorm as a class what other jobs may be important to fire suppression and why.
  6. Have students stay in the same groups and rename the groups:
    1. 10 Men Crew
    2. 25 Men Crew
    3. 50 Men Crew
    4. 101 Men Crew and over
  7. Have each group research from the handout what supplies they may need for each group of crews.
  8. Once each group has finished, have one person from each group present their findings to the class.
  9. As a class brainstorm how job descriptions and equipment may have changed over the last 20 years, write the student ideas on the board.
  10. To compare the economy of today to that of the 70’s, have student’s research what new jobs have been created and what equipment is now being used in fire suppression today.
  11. Distribute the “Fire Access Roads 1969” map to each student. Have students locate Prince George. From Prince George have them highlight what are the quickest routes to get crews out to Fire A, B and C located on the map.
  12. As a conclusion of the lesson plan have students create their own map of Fire access roads to Fire A, B and C.

Discussion Topics

  1. Not everyone agrees with the policy of allowing all natural occurring fires burn. What do you think? Debate the pros and cons
  2. One major environmental issue today is that our climate is warming due to excess carbon dioxide being released into the atmosphere. This is known as the Green House Effect. Does this environmental concern influence your opinion about prescribed burning. Why or why not.
  3. How may weather conditions affect those fighting forest fires?

Resources

www.theexplorationplace.com


NORTHWOOD PULP AND TIMBER LIMITED

1977 PRE-ORGANIZATION PLAN

Prepared by
R. Jansen
Protection Supervisor
Submitted by
J. D. Little
Vice-President, Forest Operations

1. Introduction

1.1 Area Covered by Plan

This Plan covers the following tenures:

  • Tree Farm Licence No. 30
  • Active cutting permits on
    • T.S.H.L. A01845 - Monkman
    • T.S.H.L. A01846 - Longworth
    • T.S.H.L. A01847 - Willow River
    • T.S.H.L. A01848 - Purden
  • Active cutting permits on
    • T.S.L. A07689 - Monkman
    • T.S.L. A06282 - Longworth
    • T.S.L. A06347 - Willow
    • T.S.L. A05288 - Purden

1.2 Purpose of Plan

The purpose of this Plan is to provide company and contractor supervisory staff with a consolidated reference to the company and the individual's responsibilities and duties concerning fire prevention, detection and suppression on areas described above.

1.3 Plan Objectives

The primary objectives of this Plan are to provide a reference to availability of company and contractor fire fighting tools, equipment, and manpower for effective fire suppression, and to establish the responsibilities of company and contractor personnel. A detailed listing of available resources can be found in Appendix V.


- 5 -

5. Suppression

5.1 Reporting Fires

The following procedure will be followed:

8:00 A.M. - 4:30 P.M.

  • Prince George - 962-9611 Woods Office
    Northwood Channel “3.6”

  • McGregor - 563-2566
    Northwood Channel “3.7”

4:30 P.M. - 9:00 P.M. and Weekends with Standby

  • Prince George - 563-2114 or Radio "3.0"

  • McGregor - 563-2566 or Radio "3.7"

9:00 P.M. 8:00 A.M. and all other Weekends

  • Prince George - 962-9611 Call Security.

Continued ... /6


5. Suppression (cont.)

5.1 Reporting Fires

  1. 2)
    1. b) Notify Duty officer to initiate crew and equipment organization.
    2. c) Notify the Fire Protection Supervisor.
  2. 3) Fire Protection Supervisor to:
    1. a) Inform the B.C. Forest Service
    2. b) Initiate Suppression
    3. c) Obtain written certification from the B.C. Forest Service.
  3. 4) The Duty Officers and Protection Supervisor will also be supplied with B. C. Tel Pocket, Pagers, the call number of which will be at the Fire Reporting Centres.

5.2 Initial Attack

Nearest logging crew to take immediate suppression action as per pre-arranged duty assignments. Foreman to assume direction of suppression action until relieved by a company supervisor,

Fire Boss to:

  • Estimate and report requirements for men and equipment needed to area supervisor or protection supervisor,
  • origin of fire must be determined immediately and B.C. Forest Service is to certify cause and origin in writing.
  • Direct the distribution of equipment at the fire.
  • Assess if air support is or may be required and advise the protection supervisor accordingly.

Protection Supervisor to:

  • Determine and pin-point origin of fire.
  • Arrange for transportation of equipment and crews if necessary.
  • Keep accurate records of equipment distribution.
  • Keep weather records for final fire report.
  • Set up project number for accurate accounting of funds.
  • Assure that B.C. Forest Service has been advised of fire.

Continued.../7


5.2 Initial Attack (cont.)

For weekend and after hour fires, the "Fire Co-ordinator" will record all fire location information. He will immediately notify the Company duty officer or protection supervisor who will initiate the action by use of the organized crews. Woods Division supervisors will function as "Fire Bosses."

5.3 Expanded Attack

In the event the initial attack crew requires additional help, expanded attack procedures will be as follows:

Fire Boss (Area Supervisor) to:

  • Provide overall supervision and direction of all suppression activity.
  • Keep informed of conditions on all sections of the fire.
  • Make sure all men are accounted for at the end of each shift.
  • Keep management informed as to current situation, and anticipated requirements of men and equipment.
  • Decide if air support is required.

Area Forester or Forestry and Engineering Supervisor to:

Proceed to fire with maps and photographs of the area and assist the fire boss in the following:

  • Keep an up-to-date map of the fire,
  • Locate water supplies, ridges, natural firebreaks, etc.
  • Ribbon cat guard location.
  • Provide co-ordination of ground to aircraft communication.

Protection Supervisor to:

  • Co-ordinate flow of additional men, equipment, and supplies.
  • Assist fire boss in the placement and use of additional resources.
  • Close adjacent logging operations as the need for more men and equipment arises.
  • Provide liaison with the local Ranger.

Continued ... /8


5. Suppression (cont.)

5.4 Major Fire Attack

Field headquarters to be set up at fire camp or where deemed desirable by the logging superintendent. Headquarters staff to be composed of fire boss (logging superintendent), Protection Supervisor, assistants (Area Forester or Forestry and Engineering supervisors), Time-keeper-Dispatcher, Line Foremen (Area Supervisors) and cat foremen (major contractors).

Log Production Manager and Manager of Forestry and Engineering to provide liaison with senior forestry and company officials, outside companies, the press and the public.

Fire Boss, Area Forester, Forestry and Engineering Supervisors, and Protection Supervisor to assume all duties as in "Expanded Attack."

Timekeeper-Dispatcher to:

  • organize radio and telephone communications.
  • Keep an accurate log and record of men and equipment hours, and important events.
  • Maintain contact with local weather offices.
  • Organize crew transportation.
  • Keep records for Forest Service payroll.
  • Keep management informed.

Shop Foreman to:

  • Carry out maintenance on all protection equipment.
  • Work in conjunction with the ].,ire Boss and Protection Supervisor in ordering parts, equipment, and additional supplies.

Continued ... /9


APPENDIX I

REGULATION FOR FOREST FIRE PREVENTION

Division (1) – Application

1.1 (a) Every person carrying on any industrial operation during the close season in or within one-half mile from any woodland shall provide and maintain, in good working order and use for fire fighting purposes only, such equipment of a type satisfactory to the Forest officer as is hereinafter specified in this regulation.

(b) Wherever used in this regulation, "woodland" shall include forest or woodland or any slash or forest debris or any peat or shrub lands:

"Industrial" operation shall include any logging, lumbering, sawmilling, land clearing, engineering construction or industrial activity utilizing manpower or equipment;

"Stationary engine" shall include any engine which is guyed or held in a fixed position while engaged in productive work or which is not campable of moving under its own power:

"Mobile Engines" shall include all other engines;

"Fire-extinguisher" shall. mean a fully charged pressurized chemical fire-extinguisher suitable for use on flammable liquid fires;

"Barrel of water" shall mean a barrel or tank, either open or closed at the top, containing at least 40 gallons of water and, if the top is closed, fitted with a suitable 2 inch valve and an air vent.

"Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index" shall mean the index prepared by the Canadian Forestry Service, Department of the Environment.

"Mobile Tanker" shall mean a wheel equipped tanker filled with water which can be towed or self-propelled from place to place. Division (2) - Engines

2.1-Stationary Engines - at each stationary engine there shall be:

(a) one or more fire extinguishers containing a combined total of 10 pounds of gas or five pounds of dry chemical;

Continued ... /10


- 10 -

Division (2) - Engines (cont.)

2.1 (b) One barrel of water with one pail, or an alternate supply of water satisfactory to the Forest Officer.

2.2-Mobile Engines - on each mobile engine there shall be:

(a)one or more fire extinguishers containing a combined total of five pounds of gas or two and one-half pounds of dry chemical;

(b)one shovel;

(c)one axe or one mattock or one pulaski tool.

2.3-Powersaws - every person operating a powersaw shall carry a fire extinguisher charged with not less than eight ounces of fire extinguishing chemical and shall have available one round point shovel at the powersaw refueling point.

2.4-Cutting and Welding of Metals - wherever cutting or welding of metals is being carried on there shall be:

(a) at least two persons in attendance while such work is in progress and at least one person in attendance for 30 minutes after the work ceases;

(b) one or more fire extinguishers containing a combined total of 10 pounds of gas or five pounds of dry chemicals;

(c) two shovels and two four gallon hand-tank pumps filled with water where such work is carried on at any location other than at a stationary engine.

Division (3) - Fire-fighting Tools

3.1-Hand-tools - every person carrying on any of the operations as set out in Division 1.1 (a) shall have available, at each landing, stationary engine, or other location from which men are working, equipment in accordance with the schedule set out hereunder:

Number of MenAxesShovelsPulaski Tool or MattocksMetal Pails4 Gallon Hand Tank Pumps
1 - 3111-1
4 - 824221
9 - 1546422
16 - 25512622
26 - 40717944
41 - 659251246
66 - 10010351568
101 & over105020811

Continued ... /11


- 11 -

Division (3) - Fire-fighting Tools

3.1 (cont.) Tools shall be marked with red paint and kept in readily accessible racks or boxes. Hand-tank pumps must be kept full of water.

3.2-Pump Units - every person carrying on any of the operations as set out in Division 1.1 (a) shall keep available, at a readily accessible location, pump units according to the total number of men in the entire division or operating area, as follows:

(a) 6-15 men, I pump unit.

(b) 16-30 men, 2 pump units, 1-500 gallon mobile tanker.

(c) 31-65 men, 3 pump units, 1-1000 gallon mobile tanker.

(d) 66-100 men, 4 pump units, 2-1000 gallon mobile tankers.

(e) 101 men and over, 5 pump units, 3-1000 gallon mobile tankers,

Each pump unit shall consist of a powered portable pump which is not permanently attached to any other machine, together with the suction hose, 1,500 feet of 1 1/2 inch discharge hose or 1 inch or larger lined discharge hose, and the tools and accessories required for operation and maintenance. One such pump unit will be stationed with or near each of the required mobile tanker units.

3.3-Camps - the following hand tools shall be maintained at every industrial camp which is not located immediately adjacent to the work site which it serves:

No. of Men1000 Gallon Tank TrucksAxesShovelsPulaski Tool or MattocksMetal Pails4 Gallon Hand Tank Pumps
1 - 3-111--
4 - 8-12111
9 - 15-23211
16 - 2536312-
26 - 4049522-
41 - 65513623-
66 - 100518a34-
101 & over15251046

Tools shall be marked with red paint and kept in readily accessible racks or boxes.

Division (7) - Fire-fighting Rates of Pay

7.1 The full compensation for assistance in controlling any forest fire by persons who have been employed pursuant to the Forest Act shall be as follows:

  • $4.00/hour for fire-fighters. (This category includes positions not specifically mentioned below.)
  • $4.35/hour for pump operators, first-aid men, and truck drivers.
  • $4.70/hour for strawbosses, powersaw operators, and timekeepers.
  • $5.00/hour for cooks.
  • $5.30/hour for camp or cook foremen and tractor operators.
  • $5.60/hour for fire line foremen, powersaw operators with saw, and mechanics with tools.
  • Fire superintendents: 25 to 50 men, $6.50/hour; over 50 men, $7.50/hour.

Board shall be provided but meals supplied will be charged at the rate of $2.00/meal to a maximum of $6.00/day and deducted from the wages.


- 18 -

APPENDIX V

AVAILABLE RESOURCES

4.61 Available Company Equipment

a) Logging and Road Building

  • 3 Graders
  • 1 Hayes Gravel Truck
  • 1 White (Fifth Wheel) Tractor and 9 ft. Low Bed
  • 2 Service Trucks
  • 30 1/2 and 3/4 Ton Light Duty Pick-ups
  • 6 24- and 29-passenger Busses
  • 2 Hiab Trucks
  • 2 D6C Dozers
  • 1 D6C Dika Equipped
  • 1 D7E Dika Equipped
  • 2 D7F Dozers
  • 3 D8H Dozers
  • 1 D8K Dozer
  • 1 Bombardier
  • 2 Flextracs
  • 9 Clark Skidders
  • 2 FMC Skidders
  • 4 966 Loaders
  • 2 980 Loaders
  • 1 Kenworth Tank (Fuel) Truck

A complete complement on support shop vans, trucks and welders.

All this equipment can be considered as based at McGregor Camp, and can be dispatched by low bed as required.


- 19 -

APPENDIX V

4.61 b) Company Fire Fighting Equipment

EQUIP. LOC.Tumuch TrailerWendle TrailerBattleship TrailerSpare Town TrailerTown Cache1500 Gal. Tanker 26McGregor Camp30/9 Trailer30/26 TrailerSpare McGregor TrailerPass Lake Camp3/4 Pick-ups
Pump Units
Home Lite----3-------
Mercury----1-------
Wayjax Mk III11112121111-
Hose150020001500150017300150030001500150015001600-
Hand Tools
Mattocks 333312163337
Paluaski 3333202633381 ea.
Shovels 1212121210418121212121 ea.
Axes 555510275555
Pails 22227252226
Gravity Funnels ----2-2----
Back Pumps 4444111444411
Jerry Cans ------2---2

- 21 -

APPENDIX IV

Attack Plans

10 Man25 Man50 Man
Fire Boss 1 1 1
Line Foreman - 2 4
Powersaw Men 2 4 6
Hose man 2 4 8
Pulaski Men 2 4 8
Shovel Men 2 4 8
Swamper 1 2 4
Back Pump - 2 8
Cat Foreman - 1 1
Line Locator - 1 1
Mechanic - - 1

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