Glossary of Terms
Artificial regeneration: establishing a new forest by planting seedlings or by direct seeding, after logging and site preparation.
Bareroot: a small tree with the roots exposed at the time of planting, unlike container or plug seedlings. The trees are grown in nursery fields called seedbeds.
Biogeoclimatic zone: a geographic area having similar patterns of energy flow, vegetation, and soils, as a result of the climate.
Blowdown (windthrow): trees that are exposed to high winds as a result of creating openings in the forest (clearcuts) and which fall over or are uprooted.
Broadcast burning: a controlled burn, where the fire is intentionally ignited and allowed to proceed over a designated area within well-defined boundaries, for the reduction of fuel hazard after logging or for site preparation before planting. Also called slash burning.
Brush rake: a blade with teeth at the bottom that is attached to a bulldozer or skidder. It is used in mechanical site preparation to penetrate, mix soil, and tear roots.
Brushing: a silvicultural activity done by chemical, manual, grazing, or mechanical means. It is done to control competing forest vegetation and reduce competition for space, light, moisture, and nutrients with crop trees and seedlings.
Cambium: a single layer of cells between the woody part of the tree and the bark.
Canopy closure: the progressive reduction of space between crowns of trees as they spread laterally, increasing canopy cover.
Chain: a measuring unit, 66 feet (22 metres) in length, used to measure distances. This term is derived from an old unit of measurement (80 chains is equal to one mile).
Chlorosis or Chlorotic: blanched or yellowish colouring in plants caused by nutrient or light deficiency.
Clearcut: an area of forest from which all merchantable trees have recently been harvested.
Close utilization: a specification that defines the size of a tree that must be cut and removed from a Crown land harvesting area. Usually, a maximum stump height of 30 cm and minimum top diameter of 10 cm.
Coarse woody debris (CWD): sound and rotting logs and stumps that provide habitat for plants, animals, and insects and a source of nutrients for soil development.
Commercial thinning: a silvicultural treatment that thins out an overstocked stand by removing trees that are large enough to be sold as products such as poles or fence posts. It is carried out to improve the health and growth rate of the remaining crop trees.
Cone rake: a device for collecting cones from a standing tree. It is lowered, usually from a helicopter, over the crown of a tree. Cones or cone-bearing branches are removed and retrieved by the machine.
Container seedling: a seedling grown in a small container in a controlled environment.
Coppice (coppicing): the tendency of certain tree and brush species (such as red alder and maple) to produce a large number of shoots when a single stem or a few stems are mechanically removed, but the root system is left intact.
Corduroy road: a type of built road where logs are placed transversely along a road and covered with gravel to "float" over soft soils.
Cutting Permit (CP): a legal document that authorizes the holder to harvest trees under a licence issued under the British Columbia Forest Act.
Cutting Plan: a plan for harvesting the timber from an area defined within a cutting permit.
DBH (diameter at breast height): the stem diameter of a tree measured at breast height, approximately 1.3 metres (5 feet) above the ground.
Defoliator: a chemical agent or insect that damages trees by destroying leaves or needles.
Development Plan: a specific plan outlining harvesting, road construction, protection, and silviculture activities over the short term (often 5 years) in accordance with the approved forest management plan.
Dibble: a tool used to make holes in the ground for planting tree seedlings.
Direct seeding: the application of tree seed to a denuded area to regenerate it with commercially valuable species.
Disc trencher: a machine with steel discs equipped with teeth designed for mechanical site preparation. It provides continuous rows of planting spots.
Drag scarification: a method of site preparation that disturbs the forest floor by dragging chains or drums behind a skidder or tractor.
Electro-fisher: a device used to count the number of fish in a stream by running an electrical current through the water and temporarily paralyzing the fish.
Forest Management Licence (FML): a forest management licence permits timber harvesting in an area of a sustained yield management unit. It requires the reforestation of harvested areas according to the strategic resource management plan prepared by the Forest Service for each timber supply area.
Humus: the layer of organic material that sits just above the soil on the forest floor.
Juvenile spacing: the removal of some trees in a young stand to aid in the development of the remaining trees.
Mounder: a piece of scarification equipment that creates small hills of soil for planting trees.
Plug seedling: a small tree grown in a small plastic or Styrofoam tube, used for replanting harvested areas.
Pre-emption: a system of land acquisition in British Columbia much like homesteading where the land owner would purchase and make improvements to the land in order to get title to the land at a discounted price.
Public Sustained Yield Unit (PSYU): a portion of Crown land within a Timber Supply Area that is managed for forestry activities by the Ministry of Forests.
Public Working Circle (PWC): an old term for what became the Public Sustained Yield Unit.
Release (conifer): removing competing species of trees by brushing, giving commercial trees improved growing conditions.
Scarification: the mechanical preparation of the ground of a harvested area for the planting of seedlings.
Scion: a shoot or twig used for the purposes of grafting onto another tree.
Screefer: a machine the is designed to remove weeds and small plants together with most of their roots, to clear the area immediately surrounding a planting hole.
Silviculture Prescription (SP): also referred to as Pre-harvest Silviculture Prescription and Woodlot Site Plan.
Slash burning: the removal of non-commercial timber and debris from a harvested area, by a means of a controlled burn.
Timber Supply Area (TSA): an area of Crown land designated for integrated resource use and to supply licensees with timber for the forest industry.
Tree Farm Licence (TFL): lands that are managed privately for their timber supply. The licences are for 25 years and require that the owner operate the area as a sustained yield unit.